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Allergy of Childhood

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Allergy of Childhood

Dust, cats, peanuts, cockroaches; an o​dd grouping, but there is one thin thread pulling them together: Allergies.
According to a study published by Sobki SH, Zakzouk SM (Source: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) there is a very high incidence of disease related to allergic diseases in Saudi Arabia especially among children.

About Allergies

Allergy is an overreaction of our defence systems to a substance that see​ms usually harmless to everyone. Who can ever think that chocolate is a threat?

It could be, if you, or your child, are allergic to chocolate your defence systems starts to perceive chocolate as a threat (also called allergen) and invader and over-reacts against it. During allergy, your defence systems start to fire all its weapons (antibodies) and call its armies (cells of the body that represent your defence tools) to defend against the chocolate .In other words allergen or invaders by releasing chemicals that help the body resist the invader.

It is this chemical war declared by the body against the invader that triggers all the allergy feelings affecting your eyes, nose, lungs, skin and digestive system.

Will your child get an allergy?

Allergy often runs in families through hereditary information that parents give to their children (also called genes). However, just because you, your partner, or one of your children might have allergies doesn't mean that all of your kids will definitely get them, too. And someone usually doesn't inherit a particular allergy, just the likelihood of having allergies.

But a few kids have allergies even if no family member is allergic. A child who is allergic to one substance is likely to be allergic to others as well.

Get to know the invaders

Substances that cause allergy (allergens) can be in:
  • The air (airborne allergens)
  • In the food (food allergens)
  • In other substances

The common factors that triggers allergy in the air

Dust mites are one of the most common causes of allergies. These minute insects live all around us and feed on the millions of dead skin cells that fall off our bodies every day. Dust mites are the main allergic component of house dust, which is made up of many particles and can contain things such as fabric fibres and bacteria, as well as microscopic animal allergens. Dust mites live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets.

Pollenis another major cause of allergies (most people know pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into the air to fertilize other plants. Pollen allergies are seasonal, and the type of pollen a child is allergic to determines when symptoms will occur. Pollen counts measure how much pollen is in the air and can help people with allergies determine how bad their symptoms might be on any given day. Pollen counts are usually higher in the morning and on warm, dry, breezy days, whereas they're lowest when it's chilly and wet.

Moulds, another common allergen, are fungi that thrive both indoors and out in warm, moist environments. Outdoors, moulds may be found in poor drainage areas, such as in piles of rotting leaves or compost piles. Indoors, moulds thrive in dark, poorly ventilated places such as bathrooms and damp basements, and in clothes hampers or under kitchen sinks. A musty odour suggests mould growth. Although moulds tend to be seasonal, many can grow year-round, especially those indoors.

Pet allergens from warm-blooded animals can cause problems for kids and parents alike. When the animal — often a household pet — licks itself, the saliva gets on its fur or feathers. As the saliva dries, allergens become airborne and work their way into fabrics in the home. Cats are the worst offenders because the allergen from their saliva is extremely tiny and they tend to lick themselves more than other animals as part of grooming. Pet allergens are also present in dander, hair and urine.

Cockroaches are also a major household allergen, especially in inner cities. Exposure to cockroach-infested buildings may be a major cause of the high rates of asthma in inner-city kids.

Food Allergy

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology estimates that eight foods account for most of those food allergy reactions in kids: eggs, fish, milk, peanuts, shellfish, soy, tree nuts, and wheat.

Cow's milk (or cow's milk protein). Cow's milk protein allergy (also called formula protein allergy) means that the infant (or child or adult) has an over-reactive defence against proteins found in the cow's milk used to make standard baby formulas, cheeses, and other milk products. Milk proteins can also be a hidden ingredient in many prepared foods.

Eggs. One of the most common food allergies in infants and young children, egg allergy can pose many challenges for parents. Because eggs are used in many of the foods kids eat — and in many cases they are "hidden" ingredients — an egg allergy is hard to diagnose. An egg allergy usually begins when kids are very young, but most outgrow the allergy by age 5. Most kids with an egg allergy are allergic to the proteins in egg whites, but some can't tolerate proteins in the yolk.

Seafood and shellfish. The proteins in seafood can cause a number of different types of allergic reactions. Seafood allergy is one of the more common adult food allergies and one that you don't always grow out of.

Peanuts and tree nuts. Peanuts are one of the most severe food allergens, often causing life-threatening reactions. Half of those allergic to peanuts are also allergic to tree nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews, and often sunflower and sesame seeds. Like seafood allergy, peanut allergy is one you don't always grow out of.

Soy. Soy allergy is more prevalent among babies than older children; about 30% to 40% of infants who are allergic to cow's milk are also allergic to the protein in soy formulas. Soy proteins, such as soya, are often a hidden ingredient in prepared foods.

Wheat. Wheat proteins are found in many of the foods we eat — some are more obvious than others. As with any allergy, an allergy to wheat can happen in different ways and to different degrees.

Other Common Allergens

Insect stings. For most kids, being stung by an insect means swelling, redness, and itching at the site of the bite. But for those with insect venom allergy, an insect bite can cause more severe symptoms. An allergy evaluation is needed if wheezing and other signs of severe reaction are present after an insect sting or bite.

Medicines. Antibiotics. Medications used to treat infections are the most common types of medicines that cause allergic reactions. Many other medicines, including over-the-counter medications, can also cause allergic reactions. If you suspect a medicine allergy, talk to your doctor first before assuming a reaction is a sign of allergy.

Chemicals. Some cosmetics or laundry detergents can cause people to break out in an itchy rash. Usually, this is because someone has a reaction to the chemicals in these products. Dyes, household cleaners, and pesticides used on lawns or plants can also cause allergic reactions in some people.

Some kids also have what are called cross-reactions. For example, kids who are allergic to birch pollen might have reactions when they eat an apple because that apple is made up of a protein similar to one in the pollen. Another example is that kids who are allergic to latex (as in gloves or certain types of hospital equipment) are more likely to be allergic to kiwifruit, water chestnuts, or bananas.

Signs and Symptoms

The type and severity of allergy symptoms vary from allergy to allergy, and child to child. Allergies may show up as itchy eyes or an itchy nose, sneezing, nasal congestion, throat tightness, trouble breathing, and even shock (faintness or passing out).

Symptoms can range from minor or major seasonal annoyances (for example, from pollen or certain moulds) to year-round problems (from allergens like dust mites or food).

Airborne Allergy Symptoms

Airborne allergens can cause something known as allergic nose inflammation (rhinitis). It develops by 10 years of age and reaches its peak in the early twenties, with symptoms often disappearing between the ages of 40 and 60.

Symptoms can include:
  • Sneezing.
  • Itchy nose and/or throat.
  • Nasal congestion.
  • Coughing.

These symptoms are often accompanied by itchy, watery, and/or red eyes, which are called allergic inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis), this is totally different from the annoying dark circles around the eyes, and they're called allergic "shiners." Those who react to airborne allergens usually have allergic rhinitis and/or allergic conjunctivitis.

If a person has wheezing and shortness of breath, the allergy may have progressed to become asthma.

Food Allergy Symptoms

The severity of food allergy symptoms and when they develop depends on:
  • how much of the food is eaten.
  • the person's sensitivity to the food.

Symptoms of food allergies can include:
  • Itchy mouth and throat when food is swallowed (some kids have only this symptom — called "oral allergy syndrome").
  • Hives (raised, red, itchy bumps).
  • Persistent skin dryness and recurring rashes that are characterized by one or more of these: redness, skin swelling, itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding.
  • Runny, itchy nose.
  • Abdominal cramps accompanied by nausea and vomiting or diarrhoea (as the body attempts to flush out the food allergen),
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Shock

Insect Venom Allergy Symptoms

Being stung by an insect that a child is allergic to may cause some of these symptoms:
  • Throat swelling.
  • Hives over the entire body.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Nausea.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Shock.

About Anaphylaxis

In rare instances, if the sensitivity to an allergen is extreme, a child may experience anaphylaxis (or anaphylactic shock) — a sudden, severe allergic reaction involving various systems in the body (such as the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and cardiovascular system).

Severe symptoms or reactions to any allergen, from certain foods to insect bites, require immediate medical attention and can include:
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling (particularly of the face, throat, lips, and tongue in cases of food allergies).
  • Rapid drop in blood pressure.
  • Dizziness.
  • Unconsciousness.
  • Hives.
  • Tightness of the throat.
  • Hoarse voice.
  • Lightheadedness.

Anaphylaxis can happen just seconds after being exposed to a triggering substance or can be delayed for up to 2 hours if the reaction is from a food. It can involve various areas of the body.

Diagnosing Allergies

Some allergies are fairly easy to identify because the pattern of symptoms following exposure to certain allergens can be hard to miss. But other allergies are less obvious because they can masquerade as other conditions.

If your child has cold-like symptoms lasting longer than a week or two or develops a "cold" at the same time every year, consult your doctor, who will likely ask questions about the symptoms and when they appear. Based on the answers to these questions and a physical exam, the doctor may be able to make a diagnosis and prescribe medications, or may refer you to an allergist for allergy skin tests and more extensive therapy.

To determine the cause of an allergy, allergists usually perform skin tests for the most common environmental and food allergens. These tests can be done in infants, but they're more reliable in kids over 2 years old.

A skin test can work in one of two ways:
  • A drop of a purified liquid form of the allergen is dropped onto the skin and the area is pricked with a small pricking device.
  • A small amount of allergen is injected just under the skin. This test stings a little but isn't extremely painful. After about 15 minutes, if a lump surrounded by a reddish area appears (like a mosquito bite) at the injection site, the test is positive.

If reactions to a food or other allergen are severe, a blood test may be used to diagnose the allergy so as to avoid exposure to the offending allergen. Skin tests are less expensive and more sensitive than blood tests for allergies. But blood tests may be required in children with skin conditions or those who are extremely sensitive to a particular allergen.

Even if a skin test and/or a blood test shows an allergy, a child must also have symptoms to be definitively diagnosed with an allergy. For example, a toddler who has a positive test for dust mites and sneezes frequently while playing on the floor would be considered allergic to dust mites.

Treating Allergies

There is no real cure for allergies, but it is possible to relieve symptoms. The only real way to cope with them is to reduce or eliminate exposure to allergens. That means that parents must educate their kids early and often, not only about the allergy itself, but also about what reaction they will have if they consume or come into contact with the allergen.

Informing any and all caregivers (childcare personnel, teachers, extended family members, parents of your child's friends, etc.) about your child's allergy is equally important.

If reducing exposure isn't possible or is ineffective, medications may be prescribed, including antihistamines (which you can also buy over the counter) and inhaled or nasal spray steroids.

In some cases, an allergist may recommend immunotherapy (allergy shots) to help desensitize your child. However, allergy shots are only helpful for allergens such as dust, mould, pollens, animals, and insect stings. They're not used for food allergies, and someone with a food allergy must avoid that food.

Here are some things that can help kids avoid airborne allergens:
  • Keep family pets out of certain rooms, like your child's bedroom, and bathe them if necessary.
  • Remove carpets or rugs from your child's room (hard floor surfaces don't collect dust as much as carpets do).
  • Don't hang heavy drapes and get rid of other items that allow dust to accumulate.
  • Clean frequently.
  • Use special covers to seal pillows and mattresses if your child is allergic to dust mites.
  • For kids allergic to pollen, keep the windows closed when the pollen season is at its peak, change their clothing after they've been outdoors, and don't let them mow the lawn.
  • Keep kids who are allergic to mould away from damp areas, such as basements, and keep bathrooms and other mould-prone areas clean and dry.

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